Introduction to hydrographic, mine and tunnel surveying. Expectation of a random variable, laws of expectation, variance and covariance, moments generations, Chebyshevs theorem. Sample mean, variance, covariance sampling distributions of the means, and of the difference of means and related quantities.
Accuracy and precision, methods of estimation, confidence intervals. Estimating the mean, difference of two means, the variance and the ration of two variances. Statistical hypotheses, tests of samples means, variances, confidence limits, independence. One way and two way classification. Test for equality of several variance, muthjole range test. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water and wastewater. Introduction to sanitary chemistry, Stoichiometry and Kinetics of chemical reactions, equilibrium constant and solubility products, pH and alkalinity.
Basic microbiology and ecology, types of metabolism and micro-organisms, microbiological examination of water, biological oxidation of organic matter.
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Qualities of water and wastewater, population growth, water demand, wastewater flow. Particle fluid mechanics as applied to the settling of suspensions. Zone and compression settling. Plastic analysis, Torsion, curved beams. Elastic Theory of plates and shells. Yield line theory of slabs. Ductility of structural members. Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. Shear strength tests. Shear strength tests of sands. Shear strength test of saturated clays. Total and effective stress analysis. Pore pressure coefficients.
Residual shear strength. Insitu piezometer measurements. Methods of slices, total and effective stress analysis for C - Soils. Infinite slope slip. Stability of earth embankment dams, rapid draw downs. Introduction, state of plastic equilibrium. Rankines theory and applications.
Coulombs theory - graphical applications. Tension cracks, points of application of active and passive thrusts, wall movements sufficiency. Choice of backfill material and backfill drainage. Gravity and cantilever walls. Sheet pile wall Cantilever and anchored pipes. Free earth support method. Fixed earth support methods. Introduction to braced excavations, diaphragm walls and reinforced earth.
Free and forced vortices. Momentum and impact of jets. Hydroelectric stations; types of turbines and pumps - Pump and turbine characteristics, unit power, unit speed, specific speed. Dimensional similarity theorems, non-dimensional coefficients, application to models. Model studies and operation under varying conditions.
Hydraulic systems and introduction to fluidics. Relationship between precipitation and runoff, hydrological data collection and analysis. River discharge, theory of groundwater flow. Stream flow hydrographs and their characteristics. Derivation of unit hydrograph and its applications. Hydrograph analysis and synthesis, hydrological data urban hydrology and hydrological models.
Steel : Elements of structural steel construction. Principles of Structural steel design. Design of joints and connection. Corrosion control. Fabrication and erection of trusses and portal frames for industrial buildings. Timber : Principles of structural Timber Design. Design of solid timber structs, ties, columns and beams.
Design of laminated beams and built up timber columns. Connection-nailed, screwed, and bolted. Design of trusses and portal frames. Codes of practice. Design exercises. Principles of Highway planning, design, construction and maintenance. Classification systems for roads in rural and urban areas. Geometric design of rural and urban road systems MOPW specifications and standards.
Highway Route location. Design and construction of low cost roads. Drainage design for rural and urban roads. Introduction to Railway Engineering - dynamics of rail vehicles, geometric alignment design and construction of railway line. Construction project planning and control techniques. Bar charts. Critical Path Method , P. Project Evaluation and Review Techniques , L. Line of Balance. Resource Scheduling. Site Management. Work study techniques. Labour relations. Types of Construction Plant. Maintenance of plant.
Management of human resources. Estimation of Yield, surface and underground water sources. Design of work to procure water, dams, river intake works, wells and boreholes, screening. Purpose, theory and design of aeration units. Design and operation of sedimentation tanks for water treatment.
Hydraulics of filtration. Design and operation of filter units. Disinfection methods. Manganese and iron removal. Water distribution; pipelines and valves; pumping; Plant, service reservoir. Low water supplies and treatment. Matrix formulation of Structural analysis or use of Structural Design packages. Introduction to Finite Element Method.
Suspension structures. Foundation loading intensities. Bearing capacity, ultimate, safe, gross and allowable. Influence of ground watertable, sloping ground, inclined and eccentric loads on allowable bearing capacity. Design of shallow foundations for shear strength and settlements. Examples of foundation design e. Types of piles driven and bored pile, friction and endbearing pile. Design of piles by soil mechanics methods, end bearing, skin friction and ultimate bearing resistance. Piles in sands.
Piles in cohesive soils - total and effective stress analysis. Design from pile tests data. End bearing piles on rock. Settlement of piles. Dynamic formula. Negative skin friction. Pile groups - bearing capacity in cohesive and cohensionless soils. Design of earth embankment - honogenous and zoned dams. Definitions e.
Factors influencing site selection. Settlements of embankments. Protection of upstream and downstream slopes. Introduction, purpose of Site Investigation, organisation of Site investigation for different types of structures e. Methods of Investigation. Borehole logs. Geophysical methods. Geotechnical reports. Planning for Water Resources development:- National, regional, catchment planning; objective of planning; planning process; introduction to multiple purpose projects; introduction to systems analysis. Economics in Water Resources planning:- Importance; costing and cost allocation; interest rates; taxed; economy studies e.
Dams; sillways; gates and outlet works:- Focus on Dams stability of Dam and spill way section; types of dams; construction and design requirements for different types of dams; types of spillways, gates and outlets; scour protection and energy dissipation. Reservoir: physical characteristics; capacity and yield of reservoirs determination methods.
Sedimentation in reservoir. Hydroelectric power:- types of plants and layouts; systems and loads in power plants, arrangement and operation of elements. Power duration curves. Loading - dead loads, live loads, accidental loads, wind and earthquake loads.
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Limit state design methods. Design of lowrise industrial, residential and agricultural building in timber, steel, reinforced and prestressed concrete. Plastic design of steel. Precast systems codes of Practice. Design Projects. Traffic data analysis. Traffic growth and forecasting. Traffic distribution and assignment. Traffic stream characteristics. Traffic flow modelling.
Principles of regional and urban transportation planning. Elements of manoeuvre areas. Intersection design. Urban traffic management and parking studies. Traffic signals. Highway plan appraisal. Introduction to elements of transportation technology. The Civil Engineering Industry; organization structures of construction business, Public enterprise and other bodies in which the graduate is expected to work.
Current legislation affecting the Civil Engineering practice.
The contribution of the construction Industry to develop Civil Engineering planning and design management. Water pollution and control. Development of the oxygen-sag model. Disposal in lakes and reservoirs. Sewer Design. Wastewater pumping stations. Introduction to wastewater treatment. Preliminary, Primary and secondary treatment units. Sludge treatment and disposal. Wastewater treatment by septeic tanks, waste stabilisation ponds, aerated ponds and oxidation. Pond construction, operation and maintenance.
Sanitation alternative for low-income communities. Each final year student will undertake a project under the supervision of a member of academic staff and prepare a project report to be submitted to the Departmental Examiners at the end of the academic year.
The project will normally compose of an investigation of a specific problem within the field of Civil Engineering and may be associated with any of the courses offered or his professional training. The project will be devised so as to require some initiative and originality of thought. While the majority of projects will be individually done, some may involve a group of students, each of which will be concerned with one specific aspect of the whole.
The basis of the project will normally be experimental investigation with an appropriate literature review and may include design and assembly of apparatus. Insome cases the project may consist of a theoretical or analytical investigation. Bridge design - planning and location of bridges, bridge construction systems in steel, reinforced and prestressed concrete, composite construction, precast bridge systems. Liquid retaining and storage structures - planning and design of tanks and silos; control of cracking, joints, design of sanitary structures. Engineering Professional Societies.
Engineer in Development. Engineer in Government. Engineer as Consultant. Engineer as Contractor. Engineer in Contractual Disputes. Further studies on Finite Elements Methods and applications. Further studies on Structural instability. Multi degree of freedom dynamics. Foundation characteristics of Tropical and Residual soils. Further work on Earth Retaining Structures. Introduction into Geotextiles. Further work on Embarkment dams. Introduction into instrumentations of soils. Ground Water Engineering:- Occurrence of ground water; hydraulics of well; pumping tests and analysis for well characteristics.
Use of groundwater for irrigation. Indeterminate Prestressed concrete Structures. Design of high rise structures to resist dynamic loading. Shell roofs. Aspects of dam and tunnel design. Use of computers in structural design. Design Project. Types of road pavements. Factions of various pavement layers.
Pavement loading characteristics. Behaviour of layered pavement systems under traffic loading. Stress distribution in flexible pavements. Bearing capacity considerations, evaluation of sub-grade and pavement materials. Flexible road pavements; analysis and design. Road maintenance methods of evaluation and strengthening of existing road pavements. Pavement materials; stabilization for road construction materials, bituminous mixes - their ingredients and design.
Road construction Techniques and quality control. Triangulation; trilateration and resection. Grid systems: convergence of meridian, scale factors. Determination of azimuth. Photogrammetry; air photography, flying for air photography and ground control. Photo-interpretation; theory of mapping from stereoscopic pairs, practical use of stereo-plotters for civil engineering works. Introduction to remote sensing and its applications in Civil Engineering.
Route location surveys; reconnaissance, preliminary and location surveys for highways, railways, pipelines and canals. Finite difference, interpolation formulae based on finite differences, lagrange interpolation including iterated interpolation. Derivatives from interpolating polynomials. Trapezoidal rule. Simpsons rule. Newton-Cotes formulae. Romberg integration. The trapezoidal and Simpsons rules with end corrections.
Taylors series method. Eulers methods. Runge-kutta method. Predictor-Corrector methods. Extrapolation methods.
Simple boundary-value problems. Gaussiaan elimination and the LU decomposition methods for solving simultaneous linear equations. Topics, include network analysis, linear programming, decision theory, inventory models and stochastic simulation. Acquaintance with basic statistics is essential and the use of various techniques will be illustrated by practical applications.
Computer simulation and modelling. Advanced application software packages; finite element analysis, graphics, Computer Aided Design examples in Civil Engineering. Industrial wastes and their treatment. Typical design of water supply and wastewater facilities. Finacial and Economic Analysis of water supply and sewerage project. Commonly used methods of physicochemical processes for water quality control. Principles and Management of solid wastes collection, transportation, and disposal.
Emerging Global Environmental issues. The duration of a full course paper shall be 3 hours and that of a half course paper shall be 2 hours. Candidates will be required to submit for examination, a thesis on the approved topic in accordance with the Common Regulations for the Masters Degrees in all Faculties. In interpreting the course codes, after FCE the first integer denotes the year of study. The second integer denotes as far as is possible, the subject area while the last integer denotes the semester in which the course is taught; 1 for the first and 2 for the second semester.
Where the last integer is 0 it means that this is a course which is taught throughout the two semesters such as the Engineering Project in the fifth year of study. Each semester course, with the exception of structural design, shall have a total of 45 contact hours including lectures and tutorials and shall comprise one course unit. There shall be a practical assignment term lasting for eight weeks at the end of the third year of study.
The undergraduate students shall complete the following course units. In order to cover this syllabus, service courses shall be provided by the following Departments:. The common Regulations for the Master's degree in all Faculties shall be applicable. Physics 1a Description. Mechanics and Properties of Matter : Introduction to dynamics: circular motion; simple harmonic motion SHM ; rotation of rigid bodies; Newtons Law of gravitation Introduction to statics: force systems on rigid bodies at rest: equilibrium: fluid statics. Sound and Vibration: Introduction to Sound: Wave phenomenon; sound waves; velocity of sound.
Heat Internal energy and temperature; phase changes of the pure substance. Pure Mathematics Ia Description. Numbers and Simple Functions The real number system and functions: complex numbers, inequalities, exponents, trigonometric functions, definitions and graphs, elementary trigonometric formulae. Analytical Geometry: Analytical geometry of lines and elementary conic section. Differential Calculus: The derivative; derivatives of sums, products, quotients, chain rule, implicit differentiation, higher derivatives, rates of change.
Applied Mathematics 1a Description. Kinematics of a Particles: Kinematics of a particle in a straight line, scalar and vector quantities, addition of vectors, unit vectors. Simple Statics: The fundamental theorem of statics, including reduction of a plane system of forces, theorems of moments, conditions of equilibrium in a plane. Dynamics of Rigid Bodies: Moments and couples. Chemistry Ia Description. Inorganic Chemistry: Solubility, precipitation, ion-exchange, nitrification and denitrification, oxidation-reduction reactions, absorption, characteristics and significance of some salts and elements ammonia, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, silicates, chlorine, oxygen, ozone, carbon, etc.
Physical Chemistry: Ions in solution, ionization energy, chemical energetics and bonding, chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics. For details see course CCS under common undergraduate courses. Physics 1b Description. Wave theory of light. Diffraction, polarization. Electricity and Magnetism: Electrostatics. Electron ballistics. CRO Junction diode. Atomic Physics: Radioactivity. The nucleus. Energy levels. Pure Mathematics Ib Description. Applications of Differential Calculus: Trigonometric functions; their derivatives, stationary points, minima and maxima problems.
Integral Calculus Integration as inverse of differentiation. Applied Mathematics Ib Description. Momentum and Energy: Momentum, Impulse; conservation of momentum. Simple Harmonic Motion: Hookes Law, simple harmonic motion, motion in a circle with variable angular velocity. Elementary Statistics: Population and sample, raw data, classification. Computer Science Ii Description. Detailed Course Outline Introduction to Computers: Role of computers in various applications organisation e.
Application Software : Packages: wordprocessing, spreadsheets, database management, mathematical programming, statistics tabulations and regression , project management. Chemistry Ib Description. Organic Chemistry: Significance of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, phenols, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, organic nitrogen compounds, organic halogen compounds; structures and characteristics of carbohydrates, proteins, and liquids.
Applied Chemistry: Introduction to polymer science, hard and soft water causes and treatment , electro-chemistry, the nitrogen cycle, fuels, fertilizers, soaps and non-soapy detergents, aerobic and anaerobic digestion. Theory Of Structures 1a Description. Statics: Introduction to statics. Dynamics: Kinematics and kinetics of particles. Strength Of Material Ia Description. Engineering Geology Description. Material Science Description.
Engineering Surveying I Description. He has also been reviewer of more than 20 International journals and reviewer of research proposals. In the same year, he became a post-doctoral fellow at Salerno where he is currently working and teaching civil engineering. He is involved in experimental and theoretical research. His contribution to the scientific community is demonstrated by the works published in journals and in national and international conferences.
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His main research areas include the following: Processing of composite materials to be used in the Aeronautics and automotive industry, Functionalization of green ceramics "geopolymers" for degradation of organic volatile compounds VOCs and microorganisms, Synthesis and processing of polymer matrix nanocomposites, Purification and Fucionalization of carbon nano-tubes, sinthesisi of graphene and Design and optimization of organic solar cells.
The scientific activity has addressed the topics of a seismic assessment and retrofitting of existing structures 2 composite materials for existing and new structures c macro-meso numerical modeling d vibrations on constructions. He completed his B. Sc and M. He has also contributed his valuable publications in different journals. He was a Post-Doctoral Reasearch Assistance at the same university for thee years. He has authored more than 50 publications in international peer reviewed journals, conference proceedings, book chapters; most of them indexed by Scopus.
His research interests include fire safety in road and rail tunnels, Metro transport systems, seismic risk perception. He is author or co-author of more than 70 technical publications. His research interests are on risk assessment of structures and infrastructures under natural hazards. His research interests include performance of fiber-reinforced polymer-reinforced members and strengthening of concrete structures with advanced materials; high temperature behaviour of concrete structures reinforced with FRP bars; analysis of steel and composite structures under fire conditions; effects of earthquake on structures.
Hugo Biscaia received his Ph. He finished his MSc degree in Structures Engineering from the Technical University of Lisbon and since then, he has been developing his research activity in the field of strengthening structures with Fibre Reinforced Polymers. Among other works, he performed different experimental studies on the interface behavior between bonded materials e. He is also interested on the degradation of these bonded interfaces when subjected to aggressive environmental conditions.
Francesco Cannizzaro obtained his Ph. Since March , Dr. Cannizzaro is research fellow assegnista di ricerca in the Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture at the University of Catania. His research activity is mainly devoted to the following topics: 1 Seismic vulnerability and retrofitting of masonry and mixed masonry-r.
Bruno Dal Lago, Ph. He authored more than 80 scientific and technical papers mainly on the following subjects: seismic behavior of precast concrete structures, experimental testing and numerical modeling of structures and mechanical connections, seismic effects and influence of non-structural components, innovation in dry-assembled precast structures, prestressing techniques in reinforced concrete and timber structures.
Previously, he was Visiting Researcher at the Dept. He also spent one year in industry as Research Project Engineer. Author of more than 70 publications in the fields of earthquake engineering, structural control, and mechanics of materials concrete, FRP. Since , she is a qualified as Associate professor in Structural Engineering.
Faggiano has been teaching courses in Metallic Structures, Timber constructions and Glass Engineering. She has published more than papers in national and international journals, conference proceedings, technical documents, and monographs. Nihat Kabay received his Ph. He has been awarded post-doctoral scholarship and performed his research at Arizona State University, US in His research interests include lightweight concrete, durability of concrete and fiber reinforced concrete. His current research focuses on energy efficient lightweight materials incorporating phase change materials and potential use of industrial waste materials as alternative binders in concrete.
Prior to this profession, Dr. Ko conducted his postdoctoral research at the University of California at Berkeley on government funds of Ministry of Education. He is a registered professional engineer of fire protection. His research encompasses around lean construction, robotics, artificial intelligence, and information technology.
He did his Ph. He is author of around scientific papers in the area of earthquake and structural engineering. In , he joined the National University of Singapore pursuing his PhD degree in geotechnical engineering will full scholarship, and earned his PhD degree in Dr Yong Liu became a full professor at Wuhan University in via the " Talents Plan" recruitment program for young professionals, launched by the Chinese central government.
He has published more than 80 academic articles in this area, and held 11 Chinese patents. Now he is adjunct professor at the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Calabria where he is giving the course of "Structural Engineering". He is author of 60 publications regarding topics of of Earthquake Engineering and Computational Mechanics. Sc, M. Sc and P. He has presented conference papers at both local and international levels and published papers in highly rated Scopus and web of science indexed journals.
Barbara Lorenza Pintucchi has been awarded her PhD in from the University of Florence, where she is currently assistant professor in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Her research interests include the development of constitutive and numerical models for structural analysis, the static and dynamic behavior of masonry structures, torsional behavior and seismic response of plan-asymmetric building structures.
She has published about 60 scientific articles in the field of structural and earthquake engineering and is reviewer for many international journals. She has been involved in many research projects, focused on the seismic assessment of masonry structures and monuments. His research interests involve the structural inspection, assessment and monitoring of masonry infrastructure. He is author of more than 50 paper published on international journals and international conference proceedings.
The research activity both theoretical and experimental focuses on seismic performance of reinforced concrete and masonry structures, frame infill-interaction, seismic fragility assessment, aftershock response of buildings, performance of retrofitting systems. Mohammadreza Vafaei, P. ASCE, M. Vafaei has served many international conferences as the scientific committee and has been selected as the keynote speaker for three international conferences. He has more than 45 publications in the referred journals and conferences.
His main research fields are structural health monitoring, structural vibration control, and seismic retrofitting. Florin Pavel acquired his Ph. The editors are so kind and professional to send us the reviewers' feedback in time. Those comments were all valuable and very helpful for us in revising and improving our paper.
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Download Flyer. Announcing New Journal Website. Asteris Biography Panagiotis G. Asteris Panagiotis G. Varum Biography H. Xu Biography B. Xu Dr. Soft Computing Techniques D. Armaghani Biography D. Armaghani Dr. Formisano Biography A. Structural design, diagnostics, and health monitoring H.
Rodrigues Biography H. Masonry Structures L. Cavaleri Biography L. Cavaleri Liborio was born on April 21st Seismic response of structures Yuri Ribakov Biography Yuri Ribakov His research interests include Seismic response of structures: base isolation and hybrid systems, control algorithms, passive controlled devices, active and semi-active damping systems, testing structures subjected to dynamic loadings.
Natural Hazards B. Thai Biography B. Au Biography F. Au Francis T. Benardos Biography A. Benardos Dr. Chou Biography J. Chou Jui-Sheng Rayson Chou specializes in project analytics and engineering management. Chen Biography P. Chen Dr. Choi Biography B. Choi Dr. Corradi Biography M. Corradi Dr. Deakin Biography M.
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Deakin Prof. Dimoudi Biography A. Fatahi Biography B. Fang Biography C. Fang Dr. Foti Biography D. Gattulli Biography V. Gero Biography M. Gustavsson Biography L. Gustavsson Dr. Harte Biography A. Hwang Biography B. Issa Biography C. Issa Camille A. Jiang Biography Z. Kawamura Biography M. Kawamura Dr. Kosonen Biography R. Kosonen Professorship is in the area of HVAC technology with focus on indoor climate, high performing building services and as well as energy efficiency in buildings. Kuznik Biography F. Lee Biography H.
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Lee Professor Lee obtained a Doctorate Ph. Li Biography C. Li Professor Chunxiang Li received his doctor degree in structural engineering from Tongji University in Li Biography Q. Li Prof. Mak Biography C. Masi Biography A. Mazza Biography F. Messineo Biography A. Messineo Prof. Mistakidis Biography E. Mistakidis Prof. Montuori Biography R. Nguyen Biography T. Nguyen Dr. Ortega Biography N. Piloto Biography P. Piloto Prof. Pirrotta Biography A. Qian Biography J. Rasmussen Biography T.
Rasmussen Dr. Sampaio Biography A. Sarno Biography L. Sarno Dr. Shilei Biography L. Shilei Dr. Sorace Biography S. Stazi Biography F. Tam Biography V. Tam Prof. Teo Biography E. Toklu Biography Y. Toklu Dr. Tsilingiris Biography P. Wong Biography L. Wong Dr. Yang Biography J. Yang Dr. Yesilata Biography B. Zaalishvili Biography V. Zaalishvili Professor Vladislav Zaalishvili received his Academic degree of candidate of physico-mathematical sciences, Institute of Geophysics of Georgian Academy of Sciences in Zhu Biography X.
Aly Biography A. Balocco Biography C. Balocco Prof. Chan Biography D. Cheng Biography C. Cheng Dr. Chiaia Biography B. Corbi Biography O. Corbi Dr.
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Corte Biography G. Corte Dr. Dicleli Biography M. Dicleli Dr. Ding Biography G. Fan Biography M. Filippin Biography C. Gan Biography G. Gawin Biography D. Grasso Biography S. Guessasma Biography S. Guessasma Dr. Huang Biography Z. Ingrao Biography C. Ingrao Dr. Kaveh Biography A. Ko Biography C. Ko Prof. Kurnitski Biography J. Lacidogna Biography G. Levy Biography C. Levy Dr. Li Biography J.
Ling Biography T. Marino Biography E. Marino Dr. Matteis Biography G. Matteis Prof. Merino Biography M. Merino Dra. Mohareb Biography M. Mohareb Dr. Mo Biography X. Mo Dr. Najimi Biography M. Olofsson Biography T. Olofsson Thomas Olofsson obtained his doctorate Ph. Ozgener Biography O. Piluso Biography V. Plevris Biography V. Pavegen provides a technology that enables flooring to harness the energy of footsteps.
Italian startup Underground Power is exploring the potential of kinetic energy in roadways. It has developed a technology called Lybra, a tyre-like rubber paving that converts the kinetic energy produced by moving vehicles into electrical energy. Developed in co-operation with the Polytechnic University of Milan, Lybra operates on the principle that a braking car dissipates kinetic energy.
The cutting-edge technology is able to collect and convert this energy into electricity before passing it on to the electricity grid. In addition to improving road safety, the device upgrades and promotes sustainability of road traffic. The structural integrity of any building is only as good as its individual parts. The way those parts fit together, along with the choice of materials and its specific site, all contribute to how the building will perform under normal, or extreme, conditions.
Civil engineers need to integrate a vast number of pieces into building designs, while complying with increasingly demanding safety and government regulations. Predictive software can help ensure even the most innovative structures in civil engineering are safe and efficient, by simulating how they will behave. An example of this was work on the structural integrity of the arch rotation brackets at Wembley Stadium, undertaken by Bennett Associates, using ANSYS software, which simulated the stresses on the brackets that hold and move the distinctive arches above the stadium.
Planning and building innovation has been driven by the growth of smart cities. It creates smart digital 3D buildings to help the architectural, engineering and construction sector visualise and communicate design and data with CC3D proprietary software. It provides data for urban, energy, sustainability and design planning, and works in conjunction with many smart city SaaS platforms such as Cityzenith. Modular construction is one of the most popular developments in civil engineering where a building is constructed off-site using the same materials and designed to the same standards as conventional on-site construction.
This innovative building technique limits environmental disruption, delivering components as and when needed, and turning construction into a logistics exercise. It also has strong sustainability benefits, from fewer vehicle movements to less waste. In use in the United States and UK, Chinese developer Broad Sustainable Building recently completed a storey skyscraper in 19 working days using this method.