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Influence of magnetic behaviour For substances which display a magnetic ordering e. Thus an additional term is added to the molar Gibbs energy of the magnetic phase. The value of p depends on the structure. For example, p has a value of 0. Gibbs energy equations for the pure elements, of the form given in equation 7 , have been published previously as the SGTE data for the pure elements by Dinsdale [91Din].

The reference state for each vapour species is taken to be the pure component at 0. Atom An atom is the smallest possible state of division of an element. Component see System Compound A compound is composed of at least two different elements. The phase is not defined. A compound in crystalline form may be made up of individual molecules or it may have extended ionic, covalent or metallic bonding. The use of the word compound normally implies a stoichiometric composition i.

Element An element cannot be broken down to a simpler chemical form by non-nuclear processes. The phase is not defined and the element may be present as atoms or molecules, e. When the Gibbs energy is minimum the chemical potentials partial molar Gibbs energies with respect to composition of the components are equalised throughout the system, i. Thus equilibrium can be computed either by minimisation of Gibbs energy or equalisation of chemical potentials. Ion An ion is an atom or molecule carrying electric charge.

Isomer Isomers are molecules with the same formula but different structures. SGTE distinguishes between isomers by appending a tag to the formula, e. Isotope Isotopes of the same element have the same atomic number but differing atomic weights. For most elements, and for most purposes, the differences in chemical behaviour are insignificant. Hydrogen is an exception and the SGTE substance database incorporates data for deuterium, tritium and some of their compounds using the symbols D and T. Model The word "model", as used in conjunction with the SGTE data, applies to any mathematical description of the properties of a phase, a unary or an interaction as a function of one or more variables such as temperature, pressure, composition and internal distribution of components.

The mathematical model is strongly linked to the phase and takes account of structural features of phases for example multiple sublattices and solution on individual sublattices. Within a single phase the same model must be used to describe the mixing between all binary and, if necessary, higher order combinations of unaries. This entails that care must be taken when developing data for a multicomponent system that models and reference states are consistent.

Molecule A molecule is a chemically bonded group of similar or different atoms, eg Cl2 or NH3. The word molecule is most often used for species in the gas phase, but it can be used for species q. Phase A phase is chemically and structurally homogeneous and is distinguishable from other phases by its name, structure and properties mechanical, physical and chemical. Crystalline phases have a definite periodic structure, often with sublattices.

In order to define phases uniquely, phase names like fcc and alpha are insufficient. Reference state Enthalpy data for all substances are ultimately referred to the enthalpy of the elements in their standard reference states. This corresponds to the stable phase at 1 atm. Phosphorous, for which the red allotrope is more easy to prepare and define in a chemically pure form than is the stable white form, is an exception.

Local ordering may be present. A phase that includes a variable proportion of unoccupied sites is also a solution but the vacancies do not constitute a component. The data for solutions are defined by reference to the unaries from which they are constituted using the model and data describing the ideal and non-ideal mixing between these unaries. Species A species is an atom, ion or molecule and corresponds to an identifiable constituent of a phase, for example a gaseous molecule or an ion occupying a sublattice.

State of matter The states of matter relevant to these tables are solid, liquid and gas. Substance "Substance" denotes any quantity of material having a definite identity. Thus the term comprises anything from an atom or ion upwards. In the SGTE data presented here, a more restricted sense is implied, namely a unary, a stoichiometric compound or a pure gas.

System and component A chemical system is defined by a set of chemical entities known as components. In the simplest case these are the elements comprising the system. However, they may also be compounds of these elements, in which case they may be fewer or, less commonly, greater in number than the number of elements. For the example of the three elements C, H and O, the number of components might be 1, ethanol; 2, ethanolwater; 3, C-H-O; or 4, methanol-ethanol-water-benzene, etc. Systems may be closed or open.

In closed systems the total amount of the components is fixed, whereas in open systems the composition can adjust to meet some external constraint. Unary The word "unary" is used to define the constituents of a phase. The data for these unaries are those of the pure liquids. Unaries are not necessarily experimentally accessible. For example Ni is unstable but data for it are required to model the solution of nickel in the bcc phase of steels. Moreover, to meet the requirements of models for ionic phases with sublattices a unary may carry charge.

SGTE modelling considers the unoccupied sites as vacancies, which are denoted by Va. HH0 Enthalpy in J mol-1 - the difference in the enthalpy of the substance between These are - a plot of the heat capacity, Cp , in J K-1 mol-1 as a function of temperature K for the complete range of temperature for which data are available. The plot comprises curves for the different phases of the substance if phase transitions occur in the temperature range concerned.

Phase transitions in the substance and in the elemental components of the substance are reflected in the different curves. The maximum temperature may be limited by the maximum temperature of one of the component of the substance. For the elements in its reference state the second figure is replaced by a table with several properties, including a short version of the SGTE phase designation i.

The number in parentheses indicates the uncertainty in the last digit. It has been designed for use under the Windows9x or Windows NT operating systems as a full Windows program providing dialogue boxes, menus and context sensitive help in order to guide the user to ask for the table or plot required. Luis Puigjaner [????

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Newman C. Walter Newman [???? Dwork -???? Barzam Pallett and Shawn Coyle Dec 16, [???? EHJ Pallett? Coyle ?????? Schnelle, Jr. Oxley Dec 4, [???? Jimmie C. Oxley ?????? D1 NMA?????? Hepworth Oct [???? J2SE ?? Wampler Dec 13, X [???? Wampler ?????? Mujtaba and Mehboob A. Hussain Apr [???? Mehboob A. API ???? Mansfeld [????


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    Mechanical behavior and microstructural evolution of a Mg AZ31 sheet at dynamic strain rates. Magnesium International Conference. Weinheim, Wiley-VCH,.

    Tensile behaviour of aluminium alloy sheet under different conditions of heat treatment, temperature and strain rate. Pp ,. Editado por Sociemat,. San Sebastian. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Glenn Daehn,. Process simulation and experimental tests of cold roll forming of a u-channel made of different ultra high strength steel.

    Libro de actas,. Determination of the optimum forming conditions for warm tube hydroforming of ZM21 magnesium alloy. Easier and Robust Calibrating of a laser and camera system for accurate depth map determination.

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    Mondragon Unibertsitateko Zerbitzu editoriala,. Geometrical accuracy improvement of flexibly roll formed profiles by means of local heating. Metodos Numericos en Ingenieria Antonio Huerta et al. Experimental and numerical study of electromagnetic forming of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet. Donostia-San Sebastian, Junio. I, Pgs. Donostia-San Sebastian, Junio, Vol. Donostia-San Sebastian, Junio New concept for the manufacturing of an industrial car brake.

    Process development and performance study. Hanrimwon Publishing Co. Perfilado asistido laser. Neutron diffraction measurement of AZ31B magnesium alloy biaxially deformed at warm temperatures. Garching Program and Abstracts. Vol 1. Gyeongju, Korea. Interlaken, Switzerland. Electromagnetic forming of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet: experimental work and numerical simulation. Optimization of geometrical accuracy of an industrial shape in single point incremental forming.

    Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity, Korea. September Dearborn, MI. LAKA, J. Vigo : Universidade,. Lloret de Mar. Septiembre Madrid : CSIC,. Predictions for isomer distributions of toxic dioxins and furans in selected industrial combustion processes. Thermodynamic properties of inorganic materials compiled by SGTE.

    A, Pure substances : heat capacities, enthalpies, entropies and gibbs energies, phase transition data. Part 4.

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    Measurement and assessment of thermodynamic properties and the phase diagram of the Cd-Te system. Subvolume A: Pure substances. Subvolum A: Pure Substances. Part 2: compounds from BeBr to ZrC Thermodynamic properties of inorganic materials, compiled by SGTE. Part 1. Elements and compounds from AgBr to Ba3N2. Review : present achievements, problems and perspectives associated with a semiempirical study of the Al-CU-Mg-Si-Zn light alloy system. Internal friction in Cu-Al-Ni crystals in martensitic phase and during temperature-induced martenstic transformation.

    Automobilgintzarako, berotan estanpatutako duroaluminiozko osagaiak ekoizteko instalakuntzaren definizioa. Author: Mendiguren Olaeta, Joseba. Experimental and numerical analysis of the elastic behaviour of the TRIP steel for springback predictions. Influence of alternative mould materials and inhibitors on mould-metal reactions in magnesium investment casting.

    Director: Dr. Ignacio Hurtado Hurtado. Director: Prof. Van Humbeeck, Prof. Microsegregation influence on pearlite precipitation in heavy section ductile cast iron. Adaptation to semi-solid technology for application to aluminium components destined to the European automotive market, base on productive factors that improve competitiveness, as regards quality and cost. Improvement of titanium forging for biomedical applications using advanced finite element models.

    Director: Mendiguren Olaeta, Joseba. Sheet metal roll levelling optimization by means of advanced numerical models and development of new concepts for last generation materials. Numerical modelling of cold crucible induction melting CCIM process and fabrication of high value added components of titanium and its alloys.